Learn About Caffeine Reference List

Author: Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research

 

The list below provides the references to the research studies discussed in Learn About Caffeine. The references are arranged according to the relevant section where the research is mentioned. Within each section, pertinent sentences are listed in the order they appear in the information sheet. Links to the studies are included if available online. Materials not available online may be accessed through your local library.

What happens when we use caffeine?

For instance, research shows the addition of caffeine to commonly used analgesics such as ASA and acetaminophen improves the pain relief benefits of the medications:

Anneken, K., Evers, S., & Husstedt, I. W. (2010). Efficacy of fixed combinations of acetylsalicyclic acid, acetaminophen and caffeine in the treatment of idiopathic headache: A review. European Journal of Neurology, 17(4), 534–540.

Derry, C. J., Derry, S., & Moore, R. A. (2012). Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults: Review. Cochrane Library, (8), 1–47.

Moderate amounts of caffeine may help increase our focus and attention:

Nehlig, A. (2010). Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer? Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 20(Suppl 1), S85–94.

Einöther, S. J. L., & Giesbrecht, T. (2012). Caffeine as an attention enhancer: Reviewing existing assumptions. Psychopharmacology, 225(2), 251–274.

And, while energy drinks may help boost stamina on the dance floor or when playing sports, the combination of fluid loss from sweating and the diuretic effects of … caffeine can leave us dehydrated:

Maughan, R. J., & Griffin, J. (2003). Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: A review. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 16, 411–420.

Available evidence cannot answer whether or not regularly consuming more than moderate amounts of caffeine increases risk of heart disease:

Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood, J., Rotstein, J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20(1), 1–30.

Cornelis, M. C., & El-Sohemy, A. (2007). Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 10, 745–751.

Riksen, N. P., Rongen, G. A., & Smits, P. (2009). Acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee: Implications for coronary heart disease. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 121(2), 185–91.

And, though early research suggested a link between caffeine and calcium loss and osteoporosis, more recent studies suggest the risk is low for people who consume moderate amounts of caffeine:

Heaney, R. P. (2002). Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, 1263–1270.

Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood, J., Rotstein, J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20(1), 1–30.

A woman who consumes more than 300 mg of caffeine per day when pregnant may give birth to a baby with a lower body weight:

Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood, J., Rotstein, J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20(1), 1–30.

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When is using caffeine a problem?

While most people who use caffeine do not become dependent on the drug:

Addicott, M. A. (2014). Caffeine use disorder: A review of the evidence and future implications. Current Addiction Reports, 1(3), 186–192.

People who stop using caffeine after regular use may experience mild feelings of withdrawal:

Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood, J., Rotstein, J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20(1), 1–30.

Juliano, L. M., & Griffiths, R. R. (2004). A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: Empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology, 176(1), 1–29.

Low-risk use

Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood, J., Rotstein, J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20(1), 1–30.

Caffeine counts

Health Canada. (2012). Caffeine in Food. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/caf/food-caf-aliments-eng.php

 

 
About the author

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The Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research, formerly CARBC, is a member of the BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information. The institute is dedicated to the study of substance use in support of community-wide efforts aimed at providing all people with access to healthier lives, whether using substances or not. For more, visit www.cisur.ca.

 
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