Learn About GHB, Ketamine and Rohypnol Reference List

Author: Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research

 

The list below provides the references to the research studies discussed in Learn About GHB, Ketamine and Rohypnol. The references are arranged according to the relevant section where the research is mentioned. Within each section, pertinent sentences are listed in the order they appear in the information sheet. Links to the studies are included if available online. Materials not available online may be accessed through your local library.

What happens when we use these drugs?

But more than modest amounts increase the likelihood of drowsiness or even coma:

Brennan, R., & Van Hout, M. C. (2014). Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB): A scoping review of pharmacology, toxicology, motives for use, and user groups. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46(3), 243–51.

Bosch, O. G., Quednow, B. B., Seifritz, E., & Wetter, T. C. (2012). Reconsidering GHB: Orphan drug or new model antidepressant? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(5), 618–28.

Van Amsterdam, J. G. C., Brunt, T. M., McMaster, M. T. B., & Niesink, R. J. M. (2012). Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(4), 1217–27.

Gahlinger, P. M. (2004). Club drugs: MDMA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, and ketamine. American Family Physician, 69(11), 2619–26.

But being unaware of what is going on around us may put us at risk of injuries:

Corazza, O., Assi, S., & Schifano, F. (2013). From “Special K” to “Special M”: The evolution of the recreational use of ketamine and methoxetamine. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 19(6), 454–60.

Morgan, C. J. A., & Curran, H. V. (2012). Ketamine use: A review. Addiction, 107(1), 27–38.

Wolff, K., & Winstock, A. R. (2006). Ketamine: From medicine to misuse. CNS Drugs, 20(3), 199–218.

Over time, regular use of ketamine is linked with urinary and bladder problems:

Corazza, O., Assi, S., & Schifano, F. (2013). From “Special K” to “Special M”: The evolution of the recreational use of ketamine and methoxetamine. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 19(6), 454–60.

Morgan, C. J. A., & Curran, H. V. (2012). Ketamine use: A review. Addiction, 107(1), 27–38.

Drug-induced comas increase risk of negative effects on the brain:

Van Amsterdam, J. G. C., Brunt, T. M., McMaster, M. T. B., & Niesink, R. J. M. (2012). Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(4), 1217–27.

Top

When is using GHB, ketamine or Rohypnol a problem?

One consequence that can develop is tolerance:

Morgan, C. J. A., & Curran, H. V. (2012). Ketamine use: A review. Addiction, 107(1), 27–38.

Jansen, K. L. R., & Darracot-Cankovic, R. (2001). The nonmedical use of ketamlne, part two: A review of problem use and dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 33(2), 151–158.

Tarabar, A. F., & Nelson, L. S. (2004). The gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome. Toxicological Reviews, 23(1), 45–9.

If we regularly use GHB or Rohypnol, we are at risk of dependence:

Brennan, R., & Van Hout, M. C. (2014). Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB): A scoping review of pharmacology, toxicology, motives for use, and user groups. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46(3), 243–51.

Van Amsterdam, J. G. C., Brunt, T. M., McMaster, M. T. B., & Niesink, R. J. M. (2012). Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(4), 1217–27.

Van Noorden, M. S., van Dongen, L. C. A. M., Zitman, F. G., & Vergouwen, T. A. C. M. (2009). Gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal syndrome: Dangerous but not well-known. General Hospital Psychiatry, 31(4), 394–6.

Britt, G. C., & McCance-Katz, E. F. (2005). A brief overview of the clinical pharmacology of “club drugs.” Substance Use and Misuse, 40(9-10), 1189–201.

While most people who use ketamine do not become dependent on the drug:

Britt, G. C., & McCance-Katz, E. F. (2005). A brief overview of the clinical pharmacology of “club drugs.” Substance Use and Misuse, 40(9-10), 1189–201.

Jansen, K. L. R., & Darracot-Cankovic, R. (2001). The nonmedical use of ketamlne, part two: A review of problem use and dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 33(2), 151–158.

 

 
About the author

cisur logo

The Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research, formerly CARBC, is a member of the BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information. The institute is dedicated to the study of substance use in support of community-wide efforts aimed at providing all people with access to healthier lives, whether using substances or not. For more, visit www.cisur.ca.

 
Close