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Alcohol & Other Drugs

Learn About Inhalants Reference List

Author: Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research

 

The list below provides the references to the research studies discussed in Learn About Inhalants. The references are arranged according to the relevant section where the research is mentioned. Within each section, pertinent sentences are listed in the order they appear in the information sheet. Links to the studies are included if available online. Materials not available online may be accessed through your local library.

What happens when we use inhalants?

For instance, inhaling even on only one occasion, may lead to a rapid irregular heartbeat resulting in heart failure:

Ford, J. B., Sutter, M. E., Owen, K. P., & Albertson, T. E. (2014). Volatile substance misuse: An updated review of toxicity and treatment. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 46(1), 19–33.

Wick, R., Gilbert, J. D., Felgate, P., & Byard, R. W. (2007). Inhalant deaths in South Australia: A 20-year retrospective autopsy study. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 28(4), 319–22.

Adgey, A. A. J., Johnston, P. W., & Mcmechan, S. (1995). Sudden cardiac death and substance abuse. Resuscitaton, 29(3), 219–221.

But a few more may affect our balance and coordination, putting us at risk of injuries:

Bowen, S. E. (2011). Two serious and challenging medical complications associated with volatile substance misuse: Sudden sniffing death and fetal solvent syndrome. Substance Use and Misuse, 46 (Suppl 1), 68–72.

Dinwiddie, S. H. (1994). Abuse of inhalants: A review. Addiction, 89, 925–939.

Regular use of inhalants is linked with negative impacts on the heart, liver and kidneys:

Cairney, S., & Dingwall, K. (2010). The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 46(9), 510–15.

Brouette, T., & Anton, R. (2001). Clinical review of inhalants. American Journal of Addictions, 10, 79–94.

It also increases the risk of a decline in cognitive functions:

Cairney, S., O’ Connor, N., Dingwall, K. M., Maruff, P., Shafiq-Antonacci, R., Currie, J., & Currie, B. J. (2013). A prospective study of neurocognitive changes 15 years after chronic inhalant abuse. Addiction, 108(6), 1107–14.

Cairney, S., & Dingwall, K. (2010). The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 46(9), 510–15.

Dingwall, K. M., & Cairney, S. (2011). Recovery from central nervous system changes following volatile substance misuse. Substance Use and Misuse, 46(Suppl 1), 73–83.

Tormoehlen, L. M., Tekulve, K. J., & Nañagas, K. a. (2014). Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review. Clinical Toxicology, 52(5), 479–89.

Some research suggests a link between inhalant use and depression:

Cairney, S., & Dingwall, K. (2010). The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 46(9), 510–15.

Brouette, T., & Anton, R. (2001). Clinical review of inhalants. American Journal of Addictions, 10, 79–94.

Regular use of inhalants by women while pregnant may harm the fetus:

Hannigan, J. H., & Bowen, S. E. (2010). Reproductive toxicology and teratology of abused toluene. Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, 56(2), 184–200.

Bowen, S. E. (2011). Two serious and challenging medical complications associated with volatile substance misuse: Sudden sniffing death and fetal solvent syndrome. Substance Use & Misuse, 46 Suppl 1, 68–72.

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When is using inhalants a problem?

One consequence that can develop is tolerance:

Cairney, S., & Dingwall, K. (2010). The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 46(9), 510–15.

Brouette, T., & Anton, R. (2001). Clinical review of inhalants. American Journal of Addictions, 10, 79–94.

While most people who use inhalants do not become dependent:

Ridenour, T. A., Bray, B. C., & Cottler, L. B. (2007). Reliability of use, abuse, and dependence of four types of inhalants in adolescents and young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 91(1), 40–9.

Cairney, S., & Dingwall, K. (2010). The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 46(9), 510–15.

 

 
About the author

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The Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research, formerly CARBC, is a member of the BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information. The institute is dedicated to the study of substance use in support of community-wide efforts aimed at providing all people with access to healthier lives, whether using substances or not. For more, visit www.cisur.ca.

 

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